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Research Bulletins

RB 01 - Enhanced in situ bioremediation technique for manganese removal from mine waters (2003)


RB 01 - Enhanced in situ bioremediation technique for manganese removal from mine waters (2003)


This Research Bulletin describes a novel technique for manganese removal from mine waters and represents a major advance in passive manganese treatment, since it significantly reduces the amount of land required over previous treatment methods.  The research focused on mine water discharge from the Frazer’s Grove Mine in the North Pennines.

RB 02 - FIRS (Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation): a novel electrokinetic technique for soil remediation and engineering (2003)


RB 02 - FIRS (Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation): a novel electrokinetic technique for soil remediation and engineering (2003)

This Research Bulletin describes a novel electrokinetic technology for groundwater protection, soil remediation and engineering called Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation (FIRS).

The technology involves the strategic, in situ precipitation of an iron-rich band, which provides a physical and chemical (i.e. sorptive) barrier to the migration of contaminated waters and liquids.  In addition to the precipitation of the barrier, the applied electric field causes acid front generation and contaminant desorption, from soil/aquifer materials and electroosmotic purging of non-polar contaminants.

This bulletin describes the theory and rationale behind the FIRS technique; details the developmental work carried out to date; discusses the potential applications of FIRS to contaminated land remediation and leachate containment, and evaluates the costs and benefits of the technology in relation to existing commercial remediation techniques.

RB 03 - Project SIReN: Research projects (2006)


RB 03 - Project SIReN: Research projects (2006)


This Research Bulletin provides an update on the concurrent Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) research projects being undertaken at the Site for Innovative Research on Natural Attenuation (SIReN) to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this approach.  SIReN is a national initiative for research into MNA, specifically under UK conditions.

MNA has considerable potential to sustainably treat contamination in situ, reducing the amount of material requiring ex situ treatment or disposal to landfill. As such, MNA can be a cost-effective risk management remedial tool alternative to more traditional engineering options. Given the difficulties and costs inherent in many site remediation settings, MNA may on occasion be the only technically feasible option.

This bulletin describes three research projects at the SIReN site, covering a broad range of themes: ‘smart’ monitoring/site investigation, decision-making tools for MNA, and specific remediation technologies.

RB 04 - Project SIReN – Future research needs (2006)


RB 04 - Project SIReN – Future research needs (2006)

This bulletin discusses future needs for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) research in the UK.  Under the right circumstances, MNA processes and modelling their long-term performance can prove an effective means of risk management either as a stand-alone alternative to engineered remediation or as part of an integrated strategy where engineering techniques are used to bring about source reduction and MNA is used as a polishing step.

This is the third bulletin for the Site for Innovative Research into Monitored Natural Attenuation (SIReN). Site Bulletin (SB2) gave an introduction to the site and the SIReN Project in general terms and Research Bulletin (RB3) provided details of the research projects undertaken at the site to demonstrate the technical feasibility of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA).

RB 05 - Remediation of Heavy Metal Pollution via Bone Meal Amendments to Soil: Field and Laboratory Trials (2007)


RB 05 - Remediation of Heavy Metal Pollution via Bone Meal Amendments to Soil: Field and Laboratory Trials (2007)

This bulletin describes field and laboratory trials to assess the remediation of heavy metal pollution via bone meal amendments to soil. 

The phosphates of many metals can have exceptionally low solubilities and are stable across a very wide range of environmental (Eh and pH) conditions.  These compounds will readily form given a source which releases sufficient phosphate to solution and amendment of soils with such phosphate sources has the potential to control metals release in soils to very low levels.  Bone meal is one such source of phosphate.

The main objective of the study was to use bone meal amendments in a carefully monitored field trial to test the method in a real contaminated soil environment and assess factors relating to its effectiveness.  The study site was at Nenthead in Cumbria. The field trial consisted of two adjacent 5 m x 5 m plots (control and treatment) in an area of extensive gravel tailings from historical lead mining.


Supplement to Research Bulletin 5

This paper supplements the Research Bulletin 5 which describes field and laboratory trials to assess the remediation of heavy metal pollution via bone meal amendments to soil. 

It was presented to the CL:AIRE Annual Conference, April 11th 2002.

RB 06 - Results of a laboratory microcosm study to determine the potential for bioremediation of chlorinated solventDNAPL source areas (2006)


RB 06 - Results of a laboratory microcosm study to determine the potential for bioremediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas (2006)

This bulletin describes the results of a laboratory microcosm study to determine the potential for bioremediation of chlorinated solvent dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source areas. The study forms part of the SABRE project.

Project SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) is a collaborative project being undertaken by a multidisciplinary team from the UK, USA and Canada, supported through the DTI Bioremediation LINK programme. The objective is to develop and demonstrate quantitatively, in a scientifically robust manner through laboratory, field and numerical assessment, that in situ enhanced anaerobic bioremediation can result in cost-effective treatment of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas.

RB 07- Field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF): A rapid and low cost alternative for measuring metals and metalloids in soils (2008)


RB 7 Field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF): A rapid and low cost alternative for measuring metals and metalloids in soils (2008)


The Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (FPXRF) analyser is a portable analytical instrument for determining metal and metalloid concentrations in soils and other media (e.g. paint, alloys); producing a display of the ‘total’ metal and metalloid concentrations.  It has real potential for quickly and effectively determining soil metal and metalloid concentrations in the laboratory or field; producing a contaminant profile for a site; delineating contaminant hot spots; and evaluating the effects of remediation.

This bulletin provides guidance on the use of the FPXRF for the determination of metal and metalloid concentration in soils. This is based upon a laboratory experiment conducted to evaluate: (i) The relationship between aqua regia extraction/ICP-OES and FPXRF analysed metal levels; (ii) the detection limits of FPXRF to test whether they are sufficient in the context of current UK guidance.

RB 08 - Modelling approaches for assessing risks associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills in the UK Chalk aquifer (2009)


RB 8 Modelling approaches for assessing risks associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills in the UK Chalk aquifer (2009)


This research bulletin provides guidance on modelling approaches for assessing risks associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills in the UK Chalk aquifer.

It summarises the findings of the project “Comparative assessment of approaches to predicting the fate and transport of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons in Chalk aquifers”, sponsored under the DTI LINK Bioremediation Programme.  The key project objectives were to:
• assess the characteristics and performance of simple and more complex mathematical models for each Chalk site;
• identify which modelling methods are best suited to the variable conditions and conceptual models present at different contaminated Chalk sites; and
• provide guidance to quantitative risk assessment practitioners, based on the conclusions of the study.

RB 09 - Electrokinetic Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation (FIRS) of Hexavalent Chromium Contaminated Soils: An Ex Situ Field Scale Demonstration (2009)


RB 9 Electrokinetic Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation (FIRS) of Hexavalent Chromium Contaminated Soils: An Ex Situ Field Scale Demonstration (2009)

This research bulletin summarises the use of a novel electrokinetic technique to remediate contaminated soil. 

A novel, low energy, electrokinetic system called FIRS (Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation) has been developed. The FIRS system applies a low magnitude direct electric potential between two or more sacrificial iron-rich electrodes placed at opposing sides of a mass of contaminated soil or sediment.  This bulletin describes the ex situ field-scale application of FIRS to hexavalent chromium contaminated soils.

RB 10 - Bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons –reducing uncertainty in meeting risk-based targets: laboratory to field scale (PROMISE Project) (2010)


RB 10 Bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons –reducing uncertainty in meeting risk-based targets: laboratory to field scale (PROMISE Project) (2010)


This bulletin describes outputs from a LINK Bioremediation Project and focuses on weathered hydrocarbon transformation and its implications for bioremediation, analysis and risk assessment.

The project developed the following: a novel and robust ultrasonic extraction method for contaminated soils with weathered hydrocarbons; a diagnostic strategy tool box for ecological hazard assessment of weathered hydrocarbons;  a Level I and II Fugacity model comprising four phases within the soil matrix, namely: air, water, mineral soil and NAPL; a diagnostic and risk strategy protocol for weathered hydrocarbons, combining chemical, biological and ecotoxicological analysis; and a decision support tool.

RB 11 - Streamtube project overview: Longitudinal transect assessment of the SABRE site DNAPL source zone (2010)

Research Bulletin 11 - Streamtube project overview: Longitudinal transect assessment of the SABRE site DNAPL source zone

This bulletin overviews the Streamtube Project that uses longitudinal transect monitoring to assess dissolution and remediation of the SABRE research site DNAPL source zone.

RB 12 - Modelling Food-Chain Transfer of Contaminants in Soil to Terrestrial Ecological Receptors (2010)


RB 12 Modelling Food-Chain Transfer of Contaminants in Soil to Terrestrial Ecological Receptors


This Bulletin describes EcoTRANS; a modelling system to enable the estimation of food-chain transfer of contaminants from soil to UK species and relate this to toxicological data. EcoTRANS provides the ability to quickly and effectively estimate the risk to ten ecological receptors commonly associated with contaminated and brownfield land.

RB 13 - The utility of continuous monitoring in detection and prediction of “worst case” ground-gas concentration (2011)

RB13 is called “The utility of continuous monitoring in detection and prediction of “worst case” ground-gas concentration” and describes how continuous monitoring, rather than a periodic measurement approach, can reduce uncertainty in ground-gas risk assessment. The bulletin was prepared by Salamander, Ion Science Ltd and Ground-Gas Solutions Ltd and describes outcomes from a project, “Improved Risk Prediction through In-borehole Gas Monitoring (IRP-IGM)”, that was funded by the Technology Strategy Board Technology Programme.

RB 14 - Generic Human-Health Assessment Criteria for Arsenic at Former Coking Works Sites (2011)

RB14 - Generic Human Health Assessment Criteria for Arsenic at Former Coking Works Sites

This bulletin describes the development of generic human health assessment criteria for arsenic at former coking works sites. Arsenic is a common contaminant at former coke and coal tar processing works. However, the assumptions and input parameters used to derive existing Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) may not reflect the conditions normally found at former coking works and this may result in GAC that under or over-estimate human exposure at such sites. This bulletin considers the input parameters used to derive GACs for this contaminant and considers their applicability to the conditions normally encountered at former coking works. The authors have derived Coking Works Assessment Criteria (CWAC) for the residential land use that may better reflect the risks posed by this contaminant at such sites.

RB 15 - Generic Human-Health Assessment Criteria for Benzo[a]pyrene at Former Coking Works Sites (2011)

RB15 - Generic Human Health Assessment Criteria for Benzo-a-pyrene at Former Coking Works Sites

This bulletin describes the development of generic human health assessment criteria for benzo-a-pyrene at former coking works sites. Benzo-a-pyrene is a common contaminant at former coke and coal tar processing works. However, the assumptions and input parameters used to derive existing Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) may not reflect the conditions normally found at former coking works and this may result in GAC that under or over-estimate human exposure at such sites. This bulletin considers the input parameters used to derive GACs for these contaminants and considers their applicability to the conditions normally encountered at former coking works. The authors have derived Coking Works Assessment Criteria (CWAC) for the residential land use that may better reflect the risks posed by this contaminant at such sites.

RB 16 - Generic Human-Health Assessment Criteria for Benzene at Former Coking Works Sites (2011)

RB16 - Generic Human Health Assessment Criteria for Benzene at Former Coking Works Sites

This bulletin describes the development of generic human health assessment criteria for benzene at former coking works sites. Benzene is a common contaminant at former coke and coal tar processing works. However, the assumptions and input parameters used to derive existing Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) may not reflect the conditions normally found at former coking works and this may result in GAC that under or over-estimate human exposure at such sites. This bulletin considers the input parameters used to derive GACs for this contaminant and considers their applicability to the conditions normally encountered at former coking works. The authors have derived Coking Works Assessment Criteria (CWAC) for the residential land use that may better reflect the risks posed by this contaminant at such sites.

RB 17 - A Pragmatic Approach to Ground Gas Risk Assessment (2012)

This bulletin describes an alternative approach to ground gas risk assessment.

RB 18 - Prioritisation of abandoned non-coal mine impacts on the environment
RB 19 - Regeneration of Brownfield Land Using Sustainable Technologies (ROBUST) (2016)
 
 
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