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ISO Committee Draft 2 – 24212 (CD 24212.2) "Soil Quality – Remediation Techniques Applied at Contaminated Sites" has been published for comment. Comments should be submitted to British Standards Institute using the CEN template by 8 May 2022. Comments should be sent to Jessy Mathew. Copies of the standard for review can be obtained from Jessy Mathew or Michael Smith.

This document provides guidance on key aspects for effective implementation of individual or combinations of in situ and ex situ - on site remediation techniques. It briefly describes principles, the main characteristics and the advantages and limitations to be considered in an options appraisal for each remediation technique or combination of techniques covered by the standard. It also provides advice on the options appraisal stage of contaminated site remediation, including how to assess and choose the most relevant single technique or combination of techniques, taking into account:

  • the type of contaminants present;
  • current and/or intended site use;
  • local legal, policy, socio-economic and environmental contexts.

It follows the principles for sustainable remediation in ISO 18504.

The scope of this document is restricted to the remediation of contaminated sites, i.e. where soil, or soil gas, ambient air or groundwater are contaminated. It identifies which phase/matrix can be targeted by a technique, e.g. fluid, (groundwater, gas, non-aqueous phase) or solid, within the unsaturated zone.

This document does not provide:

  • an exhaustive list of remediation techniques;
  • guidance on sites contaminated with radioactive substances, pathogenic or infectious agents, asbestos or “pyrotechnic devices (e.g. unexploded ordnances)”;
  • guidance on ex situ techniques that are set up off site;
  • a framework that covers all individual situations; or prescribe which technique(s) to use in a specific context.


In the context of contaminated land, following a risk assessment, if unacceptable risks associated with a site are identified and need to be managed, remediation actions are required in order to remove or reduce contamination and/or control risks. Remediation are actions required to prevent, minimise, remedy or mitigate the effects of the unacceptable risks. The choice and implementation of remediation techniques require detailed site (risk) assessment and characterization. 

A remediation strategy will have to be set up and will encompass these actions by implementing technical and organisational actions on contaminant source(s), transport and exposure pathways and / or receptors aiming at improving the environmental quality of environmental medium (soil, underlying material, sediments, surface water, groundwater, soil gas, and ambient air that can contain contaminants). Amongst these actions are the implementation of individual or combinations of remediation techniques aiming at addressing contaminants that may be present as free phase or within the soil, water, ambient air or soil gas.

This document provides guidance on key aspects for effective implementation of individual or combinations of in situ and ex situ remediation techniques. It was developed in response to demand for minimum specifications for the selection and verification of remediation strategies to manage the risks from contaminated sites.

It is intended to inform practitioners and stakeholders about the main characteristics of commonly used remediation techniques. It can also help practitioners to select technically feasible approaches within the options appraisal phase, based on the state of the art of remediation technologies. It is not intended to prescribe which technique use in a specific context. Therefore, it is not a frame that can cover all individual situations.